When it comes to choosing the right CBD product for your needs, there are many different types and products on the market to choose from. It’s important to know and understand the differences so that you can make an educated decision on buying the best cbd oil-infused tincture available.
Here is a show-flow of the CBD buyer's guide:
- Top 5 CBD Oil rating calculation metrics to research [*next]
- 30 Most Popular CBD Oil Tinctures to review in 2019 [*here]
- Brief breakdown of the ‘biggest' CBD benefits (dose, side effects and cb1/cb2 receptors) [*here]
- 10 Commonly Asked Questions and Answers about Cannabis Oil Use [*here]
- 23 CBD Medical Study Citations with Cannabidiol Statistical Summaries [*here]
We’ve put together a detailed list of the 30 best CBD oil products. We will cover various highlights for each CBD product to provide you with the best possible information available. While sticklers may decipher the subtle distinctions between a CBD oil and a CBD tincture, for the purpose of this review we have blended them together and used the terms interchangeably. A tincture is usually processed in a water or alcohol, where as a cannabidiol oil utilizes a hemp seed, olive oil or coconut oil carrier substance.
How We Ranked
The secret sauce strategy was derived using a multiple-factor approach. These are the main points used to help weed out the bad products and companies and deliver tried and true thoroughly tested and touted cannabidiol-rich oils.
Here is a table examining all the possible points of researching about every individual CBD oil (and company):
|PRODUCT FEATURES||COMPANY METRICS|
|Extraction Method||Third-Party Lab Test Analysis|
|Documented Potency and Purity||Properly Addressed Dosage Recommendations|
|Full Spectrum vs Broad Spectrum vs Isolates||Labeling Inaccuracies|
|Organically Grown Pesticide-Free||USDA-Certified Sourced Raw Materials|
|No Dangerous Additives or Preservatives||Made In USA, GMP and FDA Certified Facility|
|Appropriate Serving Sizes, Suggested Dose Use||Affordable Pricing with Posh Packaging|
|Additional Ingredients (Supplement Fact Panel)||Free Shipping / Worldwide Availability|
|No Fillers, Binding Agents or Artificial Flavors||Return Policy and Refund Policy|
|Active CBD Bioavailability and Net Weight||Overall Customer Happiness and Feedback|
|Vegan Friendly, Cold Pressed||Responsive Customer Service Support|
|Flavor Variety and Variation Types||Keeps Fresh Product Supply in Stock|
|Batch or Expiration Date Code||Free Trial Option and Auto-Renew Transparency|
|Sugar Free, Cruelty-Free, GMO-Free, Gluten-Free||Medical-Disability, Discount Assistance Programs|
|Palatable Taste and Texture Consistency||Website User Interface And Checkout Experience|
|Verifiable Published User Testimonials||Charity, Mission and Innovation|
But let's take the top five factors and use their label as the most important building blocks to buying a quality CBD oil.
There will be a whole section below painting out the picture on the differences between a pure cannabidiol isolate, broad-spectrum (no THC but all cannabinoids and terpenes) or full-spectrum (with THC and all whole plant flaovnoids, terpenes and cannabinoids), but these five attributes are able to give us who provides the best CBD oil to use and buy in 2019.
The first thing we looked at is purity because not all CBD is created equally. Some products use the cheapest CBD and other fillers to drive profits up at the expense of the health of the consumer. Quality CBD oil comes from a quality source. It must have a certification of analysis. CBD oil can be extracted from the hemp plant in a variety of ways. The safest and most efficient CBD extraction methods use carbon dioxide or ethanol as a solvent to separate the CBD from the hemp plant.
All of the tinctures below are extracted from pesticide-free hemp grown on local farms in the United States. All of which are registered with their state’s industrial hemp pilot program, or organic-certified farms in Europe.
The other important factor was ensuring each recommended product has THC levels of 0.3% or less. All products recommended have been vetted for extreme quality, consistency, and standards. Any company or product that didn’t meet this first criteria was instantly eliminated.
With CBD, it’s best to start small and increase your way up. Some tinctures contain 250mg, while others can go all the way up to 3000mg per bottle. While having a large dose is often more economical, having smaller dosage bottles is easier to start small in the beginning.
Taste matters. However, as long as it doesn’t taste bad, the other factors above are more important. Many cheap CBD companies will try and get away with poor quality CBD by making them taste delicious. Luckily, there are a few companies below that both offer high-quality CBD and great taste – from peppermint to lemon, all the way to a simple natural flavor.
Since CBD is so popular right now, many companies are trying to take advantage by marking up their products 10 – 20x cost, sometimes even as high as 30x. This is not only unethical but downright wrong. There are many companies out there with high-quality CBD and turning a profit without ripping customers off. The companies below are those ones.
Customer service and shipping
If there’s one thing we hate, is companies that don’t offer refunds, guarantees or answer our questions. That’s why we vetted the best of the best both in terms of CBD quality, but also brand and company policies. Some companies like Dope Drops provide lifetime money-back guarantee, while others offer free shipping, gifts, and rewards programs. Honestly, if a company isn’t doing that, you need to find a new company to buy from.
These five elements take up the majority of the ranking power criteria used to rate the best CBD-infused oils.
Most Popular Best-Ranked CBD Oil Products in 2019
#1 - Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil 60 MG CBD/ML
This CBD oil is great as a relaxer or stress reliever and is also highly recommended for a calming focus. The company strives to provide quality hemp extract and produce premium CBD oil through both quality and flavor. Using hemp that is grown in the USA is another great quality. At a 1 ML dose, there are about 60 servings in each bottle. A beginner can use this product, but it was designed with the experienced CBD oil user in mind.
#2 - CBDPure CBD Hemp Oil 600 MG
The label on the bottle is not very informative. The label markets the product as a dietary supplement, which to many people would trigger weight loss product in their mind. While it could potentially help weight loss, this oil is tested to be effective to treat migraines, depression, chronic pain, arthritis, and other similar symptoms. This particular CBD oil is one of the more affordable oil options available. It is a naturally made product that is taken from organic hemp plants. This oil does not vary in flavor; it contains the natural hemp flavor.
#3 - cbdMD Premium CBD 5,000 MG
This oil from cbdMD undergoes third-party lab testing to ensure that the oil they provide truly is a premium option and that it meets ultimate safety while being extremely effective. Their oils are taken from organically grown hemp and are absolutely THC-free. cbdMD is very transparent about their products, sharing even their lab-testing information. They have a unique process that pulls out all of the best CBD benefits and delivers a quality product. They are also very open with how to start using CBD tincture oil and how long it may take to experience expected results.
#4 - Joy Organics CBD Oil Tincture
As the name would suggest, this is an organic CBD oil tincture that is third-party lab tested. Joy Organics shares the lab test results on their website in an effort to be open and honest about their product. Each bottle of this CBD oil tinctures contains approximately 30 servings. They have a good flavor variety with four flavors that include natural, tranquil mint, orange, or lemon. The hemp oil used in this is considered broad-spectrum hemp oil, which means the natural benefits of hemp are worked into the CBD oil.
#5 - CBD American Shaman
This USA grown full-spectrum oil comes with terpenes, making it unique compared to the various oils we have shared here. The site offers a special price as well as a 45 day mony back guarantee. This is a very affordable oil option that contains no THC and is created from USA grown hemp. The company prides itself on providing a high-quality product that is pure and potent.
#6 - NuLeaf Naturals CBD Oil
The hemp used in this CBD oil compound is considered to be fully organic, with absolutely no herbicides, pesticides, or chemicals used during farming. The compound contains no additional preservatives or unwanted ingredients. While all of these facts are well-defined by the company, they do not provide an ingredient list or nutrition fact label to peruse. However, the products are lab-tested, and there are results available to anyone who chooses to look through them.
#7 - Lazarus Naturals High Potency CBD
Uniquely, Lazarus Naturals formulates all of their tinctures in-house rather than sourcing it out. They do this to ensure they are providing a quality product as described. Their tinctures are unflavored, so they maintain the natural, earthy flavor of hemp to avoid unnecessary additives. This company also runs their products through third-party lab testing, which is available to the public for review. Lazarus recommends working with your health professional to ensure you are consuming the proper dosages and that this CBD product is actually right for you.
#8 - Medterra CBD Tincture
The Medterra CBD tincture is a popular choice because it is quite affordable but also a high-quality product. The company is transparent about the ingredients and the sourcing and makes the third-party lab testing easily available on their website. This CBD tincture oil is simple to use and has an MCT Coconut oil base. This oil is considered THC-free and is advertised as being 99.6% pure. This is one of our favorite options because it is proven reliable, and the price won’t scare you away.
#9 - CBDistilery FS CBD Tincture
This full-spectrum CBD tincture oil is another extremely affordable option. This is the top budget pick in our ranks. CBDistillery has taken great care to extract precious vitamins and minerals from the hemp without additional intoxicating variants. This is a high-quality mixture that is consistent with every use. This CBD tincture oil is non-GMO and abides by natural farming practices. The third-party test results are available to the public, allowing for transparency with the company. This is one of the most popular CBD product brands on the market due to the quality and affordability.
#10 - Pure Kana CBD oil
PureKana Natural CBD Oil 5000 mg is an unflavored dietary and nutritional supplement for increased wellness and vitality now with our highest potency yet for wider use. Best for those with sensitivities or who don’t like flavoring additives but what to reap all the potential benefits of cannabidiol, PureKana Natural CBD oil has an earthy natural hemp taste and aroma you will barely notice. PureKana is your best source for organically-grown, high-concentrate CBD oil in natural flavor. It’s safe, affordable, legal, and easy to administer.
#11 - Bluebird botanicals
In addition, we’ve also included a steam-distilled (water) hemp extract which contains a significant amount of additional therapeutic constituents known as terpenes. Our steam-distilled hemp extract contains at least 26 different aromatic terpenes plus various aldehydes and ketones. With both forms of cannabinoids + the steam distilled hemp extract (additional terpenes, aldehydes, ketones), this blend is the most comprehensive hemp product we know of.
#12 - Green Gorilla
#13 - RE Botanicals Hemp 50 Classic
Many of the CBD oil products are vegan-friendly and non-GMO as is this one. However, RE Botanicals has gone above and beyond to get USDA organic certification as well as taking part in the Detox Project and obtaining a Glyphosate residue-free certification. This CBD oil tincture is also paleo-friendly, and the company shows their compassion for the earth by contributing a percentage of sales towards projects to create healthier soils for farmers. This company believes in quality, and they certainly deliver.
#14 - Green Roads CBD Oil
Green Roads thrives on the basis that they want to provide suitable and healthy alternatives for all of your health needs, from everyday wellness to chronic pain relief. They provide a natural product that is free of harmful chemicals at a reasonable price point. The company is very transparent about their product, displaying lab results that are easy to find as well as the nutrition information. CBD oils from Green Roads have been developed with the assistance of a licensed pharmacist that provides important information for the dosage and purity aspects.
#15 - Sunday Scaries CBD oil
Unlike some of the competition who get a lot of their CBD from China and other overseas sources with loose regulatory requirements, Sunday Scaries broad spectrum CBD is sourced directly from farms in the USA. Our CBD is grown in accordance with the 2018 Farm Bill so these farms are regulated by the states’ Agriculture Departments. This requires our CBD to be pesticide free. Sunday scaries CBD tincture is gluten free, and contains no THC. You’ll experience the benefit of taking 12mg of CBD with every serving. It also contains other vitamins and minerals to bolster the effects.
#16 - SabaiDee Super Good Vibes
SabaiDee tests all of their products, and they produce everything they make in small batches. Their goal is to ensure they are providing high-quality compounds. Because of this, their supply is limited and at times may not be available. The company provides extensive information related to their growing and extraction process and state that results can be expected within minutes of taking a dose, but also clarify that it may take longer consistent use to realize the benefits. They recommend using their oils anywhere from 1-3 times per day.
#17 - CBDfx
CBDfx Lemon Lime Mint CBD Tincture Oil comes in three different concentrations (500mg, 1000mg and 1500mg). The CBD milligram concentration that is right for you largely depends on several factors, including your desired experience, body composition, and familiarity with CBD.
#18 - Sol CBD
Tinctures have been used for 1000’s of years due to their effectiveness and simplicity. Our carefully, CO2 extracted hemp-derived CBD contains a full spectrum of phytonutrients, enzymes & vitamins. Sol CBD is pure hemp extract combined with high concentrate MCT oil (Medium Chain Triglycerides). All of their products contain testing documentation and are 100% hemp derived and legal in the united states and most countries around the world. We are 100% transparent with our products and business.
#19 - Palmetto Harmony
Palmetto Harmony Oil is an organic, whole plant extract that contains a broad terpene profile and all other naturally occurring compounds within the Cannabis Sativa L Plant. (20mg/ml) Palmetto Harmony grows, extracts, produces, packages, and ships 100% of our products. This product contains no artificial flavoring or additives and lab results are available upon request.
#20 - PlusCBDOil
Hemp CBD extracts are well-known for their remarkable safety profile. Our PlusCBD™ Oil Gold Formula is the first full spectrum hemp extract to be self-affirmed Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). PlusCBD Oil™ Peppermint Drops can be added to a smoothie, shake, or taken alone, and are great for active lifestyles.
#21 - Receptra Naturals
Receptra’s Active formula is perfect for those who are new to CBD and would like some support in achieving and maintaining a healthy active lifestyle. Receptra Elite 0% THC is great for those who have concerns about THC use due to employment regulations or other issues. This broad-spectrum proprietary blend of all-natural performance and recovery enhancing ingredients will keep you energized and focused throughout your day.
#22 - FAB CBD
FAB CBD oil drops are a great source for enhanced wellness and vitality. They offer several fan-favorite CBD hemp oil flavors including citrus, mint, natural, berry, and vanilla. FAB CBD oil flavoring is made from premium sources.
#23 - CBD Living
CBD Living Tinctures are easy to dose with the included 1 mL dropper. They are formulated with CBD Living’s nanotechnology to increase bioavailability and improve absorption. CBD Living Tinctures are vegan friendly and come in an oil-based solution.
#24 - Spruce Lab Grade CBD
Spruce is devoted to getting the most effective results from a quality CBD product and found that the best combination of CBD, low level THC, and terpenes came from using a moonshine extraction method.
#25 - HempMeds RSHO
RSHO is also naturally abundant in CBD, vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, terpenes, and other cannabinoids. Each Green Label tube contains 1500 mg (10%) of CBD pressed directly from the hemp plant’s stalk and packaged in its raw form.
#26 - Nanocraft CBD
NanoCraft's Day formula combines our highly bio-available Nano-Emulsified broad spectrum CBD with a unique blend of vitamin B-12, CoQ10, ashwagandha, rhodiola, l-theanine and organic caffeine to give you a natural, sustained glow.
#27 - Social CBD
From education, connection, and making hemp products widely available, they aim to break through the myths and shed light on the truths. They want false narratives around Hemp and misleading or poor quality products to be challenged, we want loved ones to be informed, and so much more.
#28 - Verified CBD
Verified CBD only uses organically USA grown hemp, avoiding synthetic chemicals, hormones, or GMO products. The hemp is passed through supercritical CO₂ extraction and a proprietary filtration process to produce the highest quality premium CBD oil.
#29 - Moon Mother FS Hemp Oil Natural
Moon Mothers grow all hemp for their products in Boulder, CO, and they pride themselves on the quality of their product. They monitor every stage of the plant while in the growth process and then continue the extraction and production process with the same team. Moon Mother is so sure of the quality of their products that they provide utmost transparency as well as a satisfaction guaranteed clause with every purchase. Their products are third-party lab tested, and those results are also available to view by anyone.
#30 - Dope Drops CBD + Terpene Formula
Dope Drops CBD + Terpene original formula makes use of the entourage effect. The entourage effect is what occurs when different cannabis compounds, like terpenes, THC or CBD – combine synergistically to create an effect that is more powerful than what they'd produce on their own. This synergy implies that use of the whole plant (CBD and terpenes) may exert a greater effect than the sum of its parts: 1+1=3. Just like an orchestra, each individual instrument contributes to the overall experience of the musical piece. THC may be the conductor, and CBD might be first-chair violin, but each instrument, each different cannabinoid molecule, each terpene, contributes to the overall experience.
An ideal pre and post-exercise routine to help stimulate and invigorate the body. Sagely natural’s Relief & Recovery Spray contains a proprietary blend of plant-based ingredients along with the highest quality broad spectrum CBD. Essential oils of Menthol, Peppermint, Rosemary, and Eucalyptus combine to create a quick-drying pick-me-up for easy use on the go. Guided by the science-backed wisdom of CBD, our proprietary blends are formulated by expert chemists and naturopaths using premium US hemp that is grown to the highest organic standards and principles.
Part 2: CBD Oil Effects – Beneficial Health Guide
- 1 Most Popular Best-Ranked CBD Oil Products in 2019
- 1.1 #1 - Charlotte’s Web CBD Oil 60 MG CBD/ML
- 1.2 #2 - CBDPure CBD Hemp Oil 600 MG
- 1.3 #3 - cbdMD Premium CBD 5,000 MG
- 1.4 #4 - Joy Organics CBD Oil Tincture
- 1.5 #5 - CBD American Shaman
- 1.6 #6 - NuLeaf Naturals CBD Oil
- 1.7 #7 - Lazarus Naturals High Potency CBD
- 1.8 #8 - Medterra CBD Tincture
- 1.9 #9 - CBDistilery FS CBD Tincture
- 1.10 #10 - Pure Kana CBD oil
- 1.11 #11 - Bluebird botanicals
- 1.12 #12 - Green Gorilla
- 1.13 #13 - RE Botanicals Hemp 50 Classic
- 1.14 #14 - Green Roads CBD Oil
- 1.15 #15 - Sunday Scaries CBD oil
- 1.16 #16 - SabaiDee Super Good Vibes
- 1.17 #17 - CBDfx
- 1.18 #18 - Sol CBD
- 1.19 #19 - Palmetto Harmony
- 1.20 #20 - PlusCBDOil
- 1.21 #21 - Receptra Naturals
- 1.22 #22 - FAB CBD
- 1.23 #23 - CBD Living
- 1.24 #24 - Spruce Lab Grade CBD
- 1.25 #25 - HempMeds RSHO
- 1.26 #26 - Nanocraft CBD
- 1.27 #27 - Social CBD
- 1.28 #28 - Verified CBD
- 1.29 #29 - Moon Mother FS Hemp Oil Natural
- 1.30 #30 - Dope Drops CBD + Terpene Formula
- 2 Part 2: CBD Oil Effects – Beneficial Health Guide
- 3 FAQ: Using CBD Oil
- 3.1 How long do the effects of CBD oil last?
- 3.2 What is the difference between CBD oil and hemp oil?
- 3.3 Does CBD oil help you sleep?
- 3.4 Can you use CBD oil for pain?
- 3.5 Does CBD oil get you high?
- 3.6 Can CBD oil make you fail a drug test?
- 3.7 THC-Free CBD Oils: What Do No-THC Claims Mean?
- 3.8 The Legality Of CBD Oil
- 3.9 CBD Industry Labeling Accuracy and Packaging Lessons
- 3.10 CBD Oil Certificate of Analysis: The Product's COA Importance
- 4 Cannabidiol Statistics: CBD Medical Studies
- 4.1 Navigating the Scientific and Medicinal CBD Literature
- 4.1.1 Addictive Properties
- 4.1.2 Aging
- 4.1.3 Anxiety
- 4.1.4 Autism
- 4.1.5 Breastfeeding, Lactating, and Pregnancy
- 4.1.6 Cancer
- 4.1.7 Cognitive Effects
- 4.1.8 Depression
- 4.1.9 Epilepsy
- 4.1.10 Glaucoma
- 4.1.11 Inflammable Bowel and Crohn’s Disease
- 4.1.12 Legalization of Marijuana
- 4.1.13 Migraines and Headaches
- 4.1.14 Multiple Sclerosis
- 4.1.15 Pain Management
- 4.1.16 Parkinson’s Disease
- 4.1.17 PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
- 4.1.18 Schizophrenia
- 4.1.19 Skin Conditions
- 4.1.20 Sleep
- 4.1.21 Strains
- 4.1.22 Stress
- 4.1.23 Weight & Metabolism
- 4.1 Navigating the Scientific and Medicinal CBD Literature
- 5 Buying the Best CBD Oil Conclusion
The most common association for CBD oil is it being able to help improve sleep. We’ve seen a growing body of evidence demonstrating CBD’s ability to relieve insomnia symptoms, including in people with chronic pain and people with mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and PTSD. Small doses of CBD also appear to help reduce daytime sleepiness.
A brand-new study investigated the effects of CBD and other cannabis compounds on insomnia. Researchers gathered data from more than 400 volunteers using a digital app, which allowed scientists to analyze the effects of CBD and other cannabinoids in people’s natural sleep environments.
Another recent CBD-sleep study that caught our eyes was one conducted by Brazilian scientists and released earlier this year. Here, sleep scientists investigated whether CBD has disruptive effects on our sleep-wake cycles.
They found use of CBD did not lead to changes in the sleep architecture of a group of healthy volunteers. The sleepers in the study normally moved through their distinct stages of sleep—including deep, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep.
This is good news for the regularity of sleep cycles in people who use CBD. It also makes CBD a promising natural alternative for people with anxiety and depression. Why?
Many of the drugs used to treat these mood disorders—including benzodiazepines and SSRI medications—can interfere with sleep-wake cycles and disrupt normal sleep architecture, causing problems with sleep regulation, sleep consistency, and daytime sleepiness. This study suggests people with anxiety, depression, and other psychological conditions may be able to use CBD without disruptive effects on their sleep cycles.
CBD oil can help with anxiety. The neurological effects of cannabidiol might be useful for treating anxiety, too. A 2011 study in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology examined whether cannabidiol could reduce anxiety and nerves in people with a social anxiety disorder who were assigned a simulated public speaking test.
A more recent 2016 study was looking at a ten-year-old girl who was suffering from PTSD, and it found that using CBD oil helped to improve focus, lower anxiety, and improve sleep. The researchers found CBD was as effective as traditional pharmaceutical medication, but it came without any side effects.
Another study on rats found that CBD worked in a similar way to Valium, when reducing anxiety during a test – called the Elevated Plus Maze. But only found it to work at certain dosages.
CBD oil can help treat epilepsy. Some fascinating evidence exists suggesting that CBD oil is effective as an adjunctive treatment in children with epilepsy that was not well-controlled by medication. The FDA even approved the only CBD drug available called Epidiolex in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures in two hard-to-treat forms epilepsy—Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome.
One Israeli study on 74 patients (ages 1 to 18 years old) found that CBD treatment led to a significant reduction in seizure frequency. In fact, 26% of the patients reported a 75-100% reduction in seizures while taking CBD. The study also noted improvements in “behavior and alertness, language, communication, motor skills, and sleep.” Not everyone was helped though, 5 of the 74 patients reacted very badly to it, and were withdrawn from the study.
A review of cannabidiol found that the most common side effects of taking it were tiredness (possibly due to wakeful sleep), diarrhea, and changes in appetite (a lack of appetite rather than an increase).
Other than that, the study found it to have virtually no other side effects.
It really does have an unmatched safety profile. The long-term daily use of excessive CBD (1500mg/day) in studies confirm it is generally well-tolerated by humans.
That being said, CBD isn’t for everyone. If you are pregnant, taking certain medications or are under 18, you should speak to your doctor before using CBD oil.
The amount of CBD you should take is dependant on a variety of factors including your age, weight, and your past experience with CBD usage.
It’s generally recommended to start small and titrate your way up. 2.5-20mg per day is optimal for general health. If you are suffering from sleep disorders, intake of 40mg-160mg is ideal.
You should experiment with the cannabidiol oil dosages to suit your needs.
You don’t need to worry about overdosing since CBD is extremely well-tolerated.
If you want to go by bodyweight recommendations, most people find a dose of 1 to 6 milligrams of CBD for every 10 pounds of their body weight to be effective. So a 200-pound man would use between 20mg and 120mg per day. If he’s brand new, he would start at the bottom end of the range and work his way up.
However, you must make sure to choose a high-quality product, like the ones we recommend, because low-quality CBD can be tainted with THC, which does have some serious side effects.
And really, a proper stamp on the CBD benefits section before jumping down into the most frequently asked question section, this best CBD oil product review page would not be complete without a deep dive into the CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid system (ECS) receptors.
There will be much more on the medical literature linked to scientific studies in the cannabidiol stats sector at the bottom.
CB1 & CB2 Receptors: The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
CB1 and CB2 receptors are an integral part of a body-wide system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). In fact, they’re the two main cannabinoid receptors. Each of these receptors helps with the uptake of cannabinoids and the resulting benefits thereafter.
CB1 receptors for instance, are great at aiding the absorption of THC. Once THC binds to the CB1 receptor, the body starts experiencing those psychoactive effects that weed is known for. Let’s examine each of these receptors in-depth.
CB1 Receptors: Bodily Benefits and Featured Functional Effects
CB1 receptor’s key functions are tied to the endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for regulating the body’s homeostasis. Of course, it’s not the only player here. There are others, but it does play a significant role. As a result, your ability to function effectively and maximally is tied to your homeostasis.
It does this through a three-part mechanism consisting of cannabinoids aka “messenger molecules”, receptors, and enzymes. The receptors bind to the messenger molecules, while the enzymes help break down all these compounds so the body can fully utilize them.
As a result, ECS is very effective at modulating stress symptoms, pain, hunger, motivation, reward, energy and sleep, among many other bodily processes.
Commonly found in the central nervous system, CB1 does a fantastic job of regulating brain functions as well as that of other organs, including the skin. These activities are carried out with the aid of enzymes like Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) which bind to the CB1 receptors.
Here’s the interesting thing: even if all humans have the CB1 receptor, we all react differently. This is probably possible because of the modification of CNR1 gene. This modifies the CB1 protein. As a result, people tend to react differently to both CBD and THC.
Even then, with consistent and frequent use, the body’s tolerance to cannabinoids can be increased. This is why people who want to maintain a certain dosage level need to periodically withdraw from using it. Something as simple as a 2-day withdrawal can bring the CB1 receptors back to their optimum levels.
CB1 receptors are designed as a lock. So, they’re usually just there sitting and waiting for the “right key”. So, when your body produces its own cannabinoids or you ingest some cannabinoids, these compounds seek out these locks with their keys and “unlock” them. Once these are unlocked certain proteins referred to as G-proteins attach themselves to a CB1 receptor in the cells.
Its key role is to regulate the proper release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. This is why people feel good when they take cannabinoids like THC.
When people ingest the THC cannabinoid, one of the effects they’ll feel is the associated “high”. This is possible because of the CB1 receptor, and usually provides certain side effects and benefits. Let’s explore these.
Helps with Pain Relief
Pain is very uncomfortable. In fact, it’s probably the single biggest reason for the opioid crisis in the US. Unfortunately, all those drugs tend to have adverse side effects for the users. Which is why many people are quickly switching to marijuana and hemp to get the relief they sorely need.
This is all possible thanks to CB1 receptors. Pain relief is a major reason for the activation of CB1 receptors. The relief is possible, thanks to CB1’s effect on the pain headquarter in the body. This is probably why you’ll notice that THC based concentrates tend to produce really great pain relief results. It’s capable of doing this thanks to its recruitment of the CB1 receptors.
May Cause Motor and Cognitive Impairment
There’s a reason drivers and heavy machine operators are advised to keep away from operating these equipments when they’re high. It’s because through the activation of CB1, which mostly caters to THC, users can suffer slower reflexes.
That, plus slower cognitive functioning makes for a lethal combination that makes them a risk to themselves and other people. This is why you must avoid doing mentally tough tasks when you’re high. That split second decision and quick thinking can make all the difference in the world.
Increased Heart Rate
One of the side effects of taking THC is increased heart rate. This is why people to take cannabis suffer this side effect.
This usually happens because the CB1 receptors located on heart cells become activated, contributing to a faster beating of the heart in the process. This is not surprising considering that CB1 receptors are commonly found in the medulla which is responsible for a lot of involuntary actions.
CB2: Receptors, Functions, Benefits and Side Effects
Here’s something interesting about CB2: there are significant changes to the receptors when the body is ill. And this is pretty much universal.
As a result, there are indications that its abundance or depreciation can be linked to good or ill health. This is probably why scientists posit that it could play a significant role in the treatment of a wide range of ailments that plague key body organs.
CB2 is particularly known for its role in fighting inflammation in the body and boosting immune system. This is why you’ll find most CB2 receptors in the cells that constitute the immune system.
The receptors are actively activated when there’s injury and inflammation in the body. Just like the CB1, this uses the same lock and key approach. To be activated, you need cannabinoids –whether endocannabinoids in the body or phytocannabinoids from hemp/marijuana- to be introduced and present in the bloodstream.
Once available, these attach to the CB2 cells, “unlocking” them in the process. Once this happens, the CB2 is activated and delivers the necessary results.
Reactions of the CB2 receptors are primarily determined by the CNR2 gene. This gene determines how every individual reacts to the presence of cannabinoids –whether external or internal. It’s the reason why people may have varying reactions to different dosages of cannabinoids like CBD and THC.
It helps regulate the immune system, thus helping the body fight inflammation and disease in the process. The good thing is it’s mostly present in the body when the brain senses that there’s injury or harm.
As a result, once deployed, they help lower inflammation, thus drastically cutting down on the intensity of the pain the patient feels. This is why researchers and even doctors are actively recommending cannabis or its cannabinoids as alternative anti-inflammatory medications. Even more, they feel that this might help curb the opioid menace in the country.
Also, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, it’s very possible that it could help with lowering the risk of stroke or reducing its symptoms. Recent research published by the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association stated this.
However, it’s not all good news. It appears that CB2 might play a role in worsening osteoporosis, even though it promotes bone health. The study which isn’t conclusive, only hinted at the possibility of this as well as an increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders. More studies need to be carried out to ascertain the veracity of these hypothesis.
Are There Other Cannabinoid Receptors?
It appears that CB1 and CB2 aren’t the only cannabinoid receptors in the body. There’s growing evidence that there are quite a few others, even though the science is still trying to determine them.
These are known as ‘abnormal cannabidiol”, and tend to mimic the effects of CB1 and CB2. A recent study of cannabinoid receptors published in the Journal of Pharmacological Reviews stated that
“It is now generally accepted that some endocannabinoids, including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and N-arachidonoyl dopamine, as well as Δ9-THC and a number of synthetic CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and antagonists can activate or block established non-CB1, non-CB2 GPCRs, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels and/or nuclear receptors (PPAR receptors).”…
“Importantly, some cannabinoids seem to target these channels or receptors with potencies that differ little from those with which they activate or block CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. Anandamide, such example, displays such potency at T-type voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-gated KV3.1 and KV4.3 potassium channels, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, NMDA receptors, glycine receptors, and allosteric sites on 5-HT3 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors,”
These receptors act like their more popular counterparts, producing similar effects like anxiety and pain relief, lowered inflammation and controlled blood pressure in the process. And they do this without activating CB1 and CB2.
Scientists are also saying that they’ve found three more cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus and other parts of the brain.
Targeting Both Receptors
Both of these cannabinoid receptors play complementary roles in the body. They’re kind of like the ‘ying and yang” of the body’s endocannabinoid system. Some pharmaceutical companies have started working on how they can specifically target these receptors.
Unfortunately, the CB1 and CB2 receptors are very similar in composition. This is not surprising considering that the amino acids responsible for them are about 44 percent similar.
This can make them confusing for the drugs; which is why they’re primarily focused on that for now. Any drug that’s developed to target these require a very intricate knowledge of their structures.
Also, studies have shown that even though they play complementary roles, the compounds that activates one might inhibit the other. This implies that if you need both to work at the same time –say CB1 for pain relief and CB2 for boosting immune system- you’ll need to ensure that both of them will be activated simultaneously via the various compounds.
At the end of the day, the science is still in the works and nothing is very definite yet. But, with the continued advancement of the research, we’re confident that over time, those challenges will be resolved.
FAQ: Using CBD Oil
CBD is short for cannabidiol, which is a molecule that’s found in the Cannabis sativa plant and has become the highest selling herbal ingredient in the world, recently surpassing turmeric. The interesting notion to note is this plant gets the most notoriety and famous appeal for another cannabinoid, THC, which as you likely know, is the reason cannabis has a psychoactive effect. CBD oil is much like oils from other plants, like jojoba oil or argan oil. The difference is that this plant oil contains non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid called cannabidiol, the unique molecule responsible for growth never witnessed before due to the green rush.
Here is a full video review of how CBD oil works and what the most pressing concerns are for newcomers looking to buy cannabidiol-infused products.
Time to cover the burning questions about using CBD.
How long do the effects of CBD oil last?
The common question amongst all is how long does it take to feel the effects of CBD oil? The onset of sublingual effects is much slower than inhalation, hovering around 30-90 minutes. The effects of orally administered CBD-rich cannabis oil can last for four hours or more. Despite ongoing science, the majority are in understanding that high amounts of CBD use is not-toxic as the body has a high tolerance naturally. That doesn't translate into new users trying pure full-spectrum CBD oil supplements feeling a heavier effect either. Everyone will respond to CBD differently, the key is to find a quality tincture that gives the highest quality oil the best chances to last and help heal in its unique way.
What is the difference between CBD oil and hemp oil?
CBD oil is often used as a catch-all term for any oil from the Cannabis sativa plant that is high in CBD. This means that CBD oil can come from any strain of cannabis, including those that have high amounts of THC.
However, hemp oil refers specifically to oil produced from hemp, which is a certain strain of Cannabis sativa that is specifically bred to have almost no THC. Hemp is usually used for industrial purposes and was legalized nationwide in 2018 in a landmark piece of agricultural legislation.
A side effect of the legalization of hemp was that CBD oil made from hemp could be sold legally. Hemp contains CBD, but no THC. However, hemp is not specifically bred to contain high amounts of CBD—those strains of Cannabis sativa are still not legal at the federal level.
The result is that CBD is in a strange legal limbo where it’s fully legal if it comes from one strain of cannabis plant, but (might be) technically illegal from another strain of the exact same plant.
Does CBD oil help you sleep?
CBD oil may help reduce anxiety, which is a major cause of insomnia. CBD induces alertness, but also appears to help increase overall sleep time at night.
Can you use CBD oil for pain?
Yes, CBD oil has been researched intently lately for its ability to treat pain. It seems particularly effective for neuropathy-related pain, and as a result, CBD has been commonly used for patients with neurological diseases that cause this kind of pain, like multiple sclerosis.
The mechanism that CBD uses to relieve pain appears to be linked to its ability to combat inflammation, so while there’s less research on it, CBD oil might also be useful for inflammatory joint pain from conditions like osteoarthritis.
Does CBD oil get you high?
CBD oil won’t get you high because it has been specifically produced to minimize THC count (the stuff that gets you high) while maximizing CBD count (the stuff that actually prevents you getting high). But smoking it can have a minor buzz associated to it given the trace amounts of possible THC in it – but for oil users, it will produce non-psychoactive effects for most. Don't be so naive to think ‘all miracle oils' can work the same and match the label readings. Asking something as bold as does CBD oil cure cancer should not be the primary question for obvious reasons. No, CBD is not yet proven to cure cancer despite various marketing claims.
Can CBD oil make you fail a drug test?
Hypothetically, taking pure cannabidiol (CBD) would not make you fail a drug test, but in practice, the risk of failing a drug test is very high if you take CBD oil. That’s because many CBD products are contaminated with traces of THC, which can be detected quite easily on a drug test.
CBD and THC, of course, come from exactly the same plant, so it’s understandable why there’s likely to be some cross-contamination. A 2019 study found that 21% of CBD oils purchased online contain detectable amounts of THC, so if you are getting drug tested, taking CBD oil is not a good idea, especially given how long THC can remain in your system.
THC-Free CBD Oils: What Do No-THC Claims Mean?
- THC-free does not mean that a CBD product contains absolutely no THC in it.
- The equipment in a third-party testing lab may not pick up THC if the detection levels are too high.
Anyone that has heard about the CBD industry has heard recommendation to use CBD oil that is free of THC. Much of the benefit to this type of product has to do with the guarantee that companies issue, claiming that the user won’t test positive on any drug test – a common concern with these remedies as mentioned above. However, this advertisement can be misleading, and the ones who end up paying for this are the individuals that are trying to keeps jobs secure and not get mixed up in CBD vs THC supplementation.
Most of the reason that CBD products that are THC-free are chosen is for not having THC. THC is the big concern for its way of creating a psychoactive effect in the body, and will be picked up during drug testing if certain specific testing measures are used. Even though there are a fraction of employers that test for any possible cannabinoids that could be picked up, the majority of these employers only seek out THC metabolites.
When individuals consume products that say that they are zero-THC, these individuals believe that they don’t have the same risk. However, the fact remains that eliminating the risk of a positive drug test can only happen when the person decides to go with a pure hemp oil or opt for a pure CBD isolate. However, the majority of products claiming to be THC-free still actually have trace amounts of THC. The 0.3% limit has a few varying degrees to operate within depending on the testing methods as the term “THC-free” could realistically mean a few different things.
Some companies believe hemp offers no THC in the plant, or that the amount of THC found in the hemp is so minuscule that the trace amount is “basically nothing.” However, this belief is fairly common at this point, since pretty much any company can sell these products, even without a lot of information on the topic or guides on CBD to follow up on. Realistically, a product that claims to be THC free indicates that they have 3rd party lab tests available that show that the product advertised had no THC in the lab. However, the key takeaway from these results is not that there is not THC, but that it wasn’t detected.
Every lab has different detection limits, as the equipment determines how in-depth of testing that the company can put their products through. If the amount of THC is lower than the detection limit, then the THC doesn’t appear. Consumers can tell if this situation is the case if the lab test includes “ND” or “<LOQ” is next to “D9 THC.”
The trace amounts can build up over time, which would lead the user to test positive on their drug test with more CBD use. Even though they may not test positive initially, they could see a positive test later on.
The Legality Of CBD Oil
As of late 2018, the US government passed the farm bill legalizing CBD federally all over the nation. As long as it contains 0.3% THC or less, it's legal. However, Idaho, Nebraska, and South Dakota still have laws that are written in such a way that criminalizes CBD. The rest of the State CBD laws are utilizing the enactment of the 2018 Hemp Farm bill.
Is Industrial Hemp the Best Source for CBD Oil?
Those who are starting to look into cannabidiol products often find that many websites advertise their products as either marijuana or industrial hemp. The key to finding the right product is to understand these two categories. Fortunately, here are a few key elements to recognizing when reviewing a CBD oil product.
The cannabis industry is built around two plants, which are broadly categorized as the drug plant and the hemp plants. The latter is cultivated for fiber and seed oils, while the former are often cultivated for their euphoria-producing qualities due to the THC content. However, when the THC content is removed, the hemp can be used for products. Another significant difference between the two is the resin content – the drug plant has a high resin (essential oils) content, while hemp plant has a low resin content.
Under federal law, marijuana was originally defined by its resin content. Examining the 1973 Marihuana Tax Act originally defining the term, or appearing in the 1972 Controlled Substances Act (when National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) first petitioned – according to the original act,:
“The term ‘marijuana' means all parts of the plant Cannabis satvia L. [sic], whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of such plant, its seed or resin.”
Essentially, the part of the plant that comprises of the mature stalk and sterilized seed are not part of the legal definition of marijuana and are not part of the exemptions either. Moreover, federal law provides that the resin of the marijuana plant of any “preparation” derived from the resin is to not be used. On the other hand, medical and recreational brands recognize that the resin is one of the most powerful parts of the plants. It contains THC and CBD and it also features a range of metabolites and over 100 other phytocannabinoids.
Unlike the resin, the hempseeds do not contain the same substances. The seeds do not feature the same compounds as the CBD-rich oil that is derived from the flowers and leaves of the hemp plant as alluded to above. The oil is free from CBD, THC, and cannabinoids – but it is still a stellar product that can be used to make soap, nutraceuticals, varnish, soap, paint, and thousands of others given hemp's versatility.
Federal Law Today: Analyzing Marijuana Legal Implications
The original laws assumed that resin was the element that differentiated regular marijuana products from the industrial-grade version. Today’s laws have changed or been updated.
Federal law now characterizes industrial hemp has to have no more than 0.3 percent THC by dry weight. This low figure derives from a taxonomic report from 1976. Interestingly enough, the report was not intended to be used to express a difference between forms of cannabis.
Recently, the Drug Enforcement Administration attempted to ban hemp from food products, such as hempseed oil. The attempt appeared in an interpretive rule published in 2001, in which it stated that “any product that contains any amount of THC is a schedule I controlled substance.” The attempt failed when the Hemp Industries Association litigated against the administration and in 2004, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals determined that the DEA could not ban hemp based on substantive grounds. Though CBD’s legal status was not affected by the ruling, many brands tend to cite to the decision, claiming that their products are legal in all 50 states. This is highly inaccurate, as the law does not legalize hemp and second, even if it did, the circuit ruling is not binding on circuits.
The 2018 Farm Bill also provides for federal approved pilot programs and states can farm CBD, so long as it is for medicinal oil extraction. Kentucky, for example, has several farms that are cultivating industrial hemp for product formulation. The programs are permitted to continue, so long as they operate within federally-sanctioned agricultural programs. The farmers should have and need to have certified pedigrees and certification of analysis (see CoA below). The state’s growers have also come up with varieties that have a high resin content and that cause no euphoric effect either. The product can be used to create CBD oils.
Another state, Colorado, has been cultivating strains of cannabis that have a high CBD content and a low THC level. The issue is that the industry does not comply with 7606 of 2014s Agricultural Act. Rather, the state has many farms that produce hemp for commercial cultivation and though state law permits such cultivation, federal law does not. As a result, a Colorado farmer had to destroy his entire crop recently because his cultivated hemp was beyond the legal limit.
Reviving Industrial Hemp
There are those who are proponents of the hemp industry and one such individual is Joy Beckerman who is president of Hemp Ace International and who is also teaching a law class on
“The Curious Legal Status of CBD and Industrial Hemp-Derived Cannabinoids.” Beckerman understands the significant role that hemp plays in developing an infrastructure for the new industry. As she stated,
“I see the revenue can be immediately generated by the hemp CBD market as leading to the funding of an extensive domestic infrastructure for processing hemp fiber and seed into tends of thousands of natural and manufactured products, as well as CBD oil.”
Though many brands use industrial hemp for their CBD products, the industry may experience issues from such use. For example, industrial grade hemp does not have an optimal amount of CBD oil, it takes a great deal of foliage to produce a small quantity of oil, and there is always a risk of contaminants. The industry has tried to combat the problem by creating CBD paste, which comes from the foliage. The paste is also infused with hemp-derived CBD powder, that may dilute the effectiveness of the product because the power has thinning agents.
Another significant problem is that the processed products also do not have the full-spectrum CBD that is so widely coveted due to the inclusion of terpenes and other cannabinoids. Thus, they may have less of a therapeutic effect. For instance, scientific research shows that products with full-spectrum CBD may have more therapeutic properties than single-molecule CBD due to the ‘entourage effect'.
At the end of the day, given the industry’s continued growth and evolution, it seems absurd that 0.3 percent THC is the legal limit. The federal law is difficult to comply with and unfortunately, not many states do so – even though they comply with their own state’s laws. It’ll be interesting to see where the industry goes in the years to come.
Each individual state in the United States has different rules and policies, albeit most of them mino nowr. Here is a list of every state regulations for easy reference:
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington DC, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
CBD Industry Labeling Accuracy and Packaging Lessons
The worldly connection between fitness supplements and cannabis-infused products might not be immediately evident, but the two industries share one common issue: an almost complete lack of mandatory and universal labeling standards.
Cannabis packaging is following the mistakes of the supplement industry to some degree when it comes to labeling, but this also represents an opportunity to establish any brand as a trusted, preferred source.
Inadequate Labels And Consumer Trust
Products intended for bodybuilders and dieters are only very loosely regulated by the FDA, which tends to only step in when there appears to be a serious and medically demonstrable health consequence- for example, the ban on DMAA and recent warning letters sent to companies distributing products containing picamilon.
As far as labeling accuracy goes, however, the FDA is almost entirely hands-off. This has been demonstrated by everything from scandals over “protein spiking” to no end of “miracle fat burners” that aren't actually backed by scientific evidence. This problem extends to the world of all-natural herbal remedies, and perhaps is even worse there; independent testing has shown that a variety of these products doesn't contain the central herb promoted in proper doses or tested concentrations.
Cannabis products are also not regulated by the FDA (yet), although they fall into a different set of circumstances. At the federal level, cannabis is still a Schedule I controlled substance, and there's no substantive indication that is going to change in the near future. States that have legalized cannabis have begun to impose their own labeling standards, but to date they have focused almost exclusively on making cannabis product packaging child-proof and including warnings about possible health outcomes.
Individual state requirements for content labeling accuracy vary greatly. For example, Alaska only requires an estimate of the amount of THC in the product, while at the opposite end Connecticut requires a full list of active ingredients and a profile of terpenes in addition to a unique serial number tied to producer lot and batch numbers.
Accuracy standards are not necessarily any tighter in the states that have legalized for recreational use. Colorado requires a universal THC symbol and a list of ingredients, but not specific amounts. Oregon's laws are only focused on making packages child-resistant. Washington has the most comprehensive standards at present, requiring a list of ingredients, concentration amounts of THC and CBD, and a “best by” date.
Already An Accuracy Problem?
Based on early independent studies, the cannabis industry may already be heading down the road the worst elements of the fitness and herbal supplement industry have chosen to take.
In a study published in The Journal of American Medicine in 2015, researchers took a random sampling of 75 different labeled edibles from dispensaries in San Francisco, Seattle and Los Angeles and tested them in a laboratory. More than 50% of these edibles contained significantly less THC and/or CBD than their labels claimed. Over 60% contained less THC than they claimed to have, while 23% actually had more, leaving only 17% with completely accurate counts.
Producers of cannabis products do face unique logistical challenges that sometimes stymie even the best of intentions. For example, due to federal laws, they're usually limited to using whatever labs happen to be located in the same state. And due to the nature of sourcing, buds from multiple plants are likely to be present in each batch of product, meaning more samples per batch will have to be tested to get a truly accurate picture of the total content. Even so, the cost of full testing is reasonable, particularly for companies that deal in high volume with a particular lab.
Why Accurate Labeling Is Key Going Forward
In the fitness supplement world, professional athletes are the most high-end of customers. Athletes are on very strict diets, carefully counting all the macronutrients and calories they consume. They need to be absolutely certain that they are getting accurate information about what they're putting in their body.
They also can't afford to have an amphetamine analogue or other illicit substance slipped into their products, as they are subject to regular drug testing and can end up suspended or even banned from their profession if they aren't careful. They have large training budgets, and they're willing to spend more for a premium product that meets their needs: products that offer an “open label” policy, are verified by an independent laboratory and back up all of their claims with legitimate scientific testing.
The stakes are similarly high for medicinal cannabis users. Cannabis is susceptible to mold and mildew, and can also be infected with bacteria like listeria and E. coli. While these things may represent only a temporary illness and inconvenience for a healthy consumer, they could potentially prove fatal to those with compromised immune systems. These consumers will be carefully scanning cannabis packaging for assurances that it is properly tested, particularly if they have had a bad experience in the past.
High-end recreational customers with the most discretionary income are similarly going to want assurances that they are getting the best product possible for their needs and that the cannabinoid profile does what they expect it to do. Cannabis packaging that boasts independent lab verification of its quality will resonate just as well with this demographic.
Cannabis is still very much an emerging market, and one that's in a particularly unique state of chaos thanks to its legal status at the federal level. We're still far from any established “household name” brands, and existing brands are currently limited to establishing their presence in local markets for the most part. This period represents a golden opportunity for brands to emerge locally as popular trusted providers who offer a premium product, comparable to brands like Charlotte's Web, and continue to build on this reputation as legalization efforts advance across the country.
The first high-end household name in cannabis is going to be one that people find dependable, and dependability is reliant on a voluntary high standard of lab testing and labeling which show up in a CBD oil product's certification of analysis.
CBD Oil Certificate of Analysis: The Product's COA Importance
- A certificate of analysis is a must-have for any company to prove the validity of their products.
- The analysis includes information about the terpenes, heavy metals, cannabinoids, and more in the sample from the company.
A certificate of analysis is used by a company to show the chemical makeup of a specific product. As far as industrial hemp, this certificate demonstrates the cannabinoids and other compounds in the product, and they are often used as a way to show that the company has included exactly what they advertised. The reports also demonstrate that the extracts available through hemp have under 3% THC, which is what is federally required.
Why Is A Certificate of Analysis Necessary?
The average consumer needs to have a thorough understanding of the way that these certificates break down information about the product. There are many new CBD manufacturers popping up in the industry, and the lack of information from COAs is necessary in determining potency and ingredients involved. Furthermore, consumers that may be drug tested need to know with certainty that the products they use fall under the trace amounts specified to protect themselves.
What Is Included in the Analysis?
A COA includes the name of the company who performed the lab test, which is not always the same as the name of the company that has developed the product. With a third-party test, companies can prove themselves to be transparent, which allows consumers to trust the company. The test will show who authorized the test as well, and consumers should be able to confirm any of the findings listed in the COA by contacting the laboratory attached to it.
The Cannabinoid Profile, often found at the bottom half of the first page, shows the cannabinoids found in the product. This list usually includes the THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids that may play a role. Any substances that are not detected with the testing protocols will be graded “ND.”
Heavy metal analysis shows the metals that were evaluated in the profile. This chart shows which heavy metals were tested, showing the concentration of each metal in the sample, which the word “units” shows the measurement size. MDL represents the lower limit of detection for lab instruments, and the Department of Public Health and US Pharmacopeia’s “use limit” shows how much of those metals can safely be consumed each day.
A certificate of analysis reveals the pesticides included in the sample as well, testing for common pesticides that can be found in these products, showing the maximum amount allowed for consumption (Limits) and the lower limit of detection (LLD). Each pesticide includes a PASS or NO PASS, based on whether these chemicals are within the proper limits.
Terpenes are found in cannabis and hemp, creating the flavors, reaction, and more, which is why the COA includes a list of the terpenes that the lab has found in the sample. Usually, this content is organized by the weight percent, and this section of the lab test will help the consumer predict the experience that they will have with the product.
When it comes to purchasing CBD products or any product in the hemp or cannabis industry, a COA is necessary to understanding exactly what a consumer is given. It creates a sense of confidence over where the user spends their month, and the basic information is crucial to determining what experience the user will receive. Companies that opt against this type of analysis may not be providing consumers with the product advertised, which isn’t where anyone wants to spend their money.
Now to encapsulate why CBD oil infusions are catching so much buzz in the medical cannabis awakening.
Cannabidiol Statistics: CBD Medical Studies
As CBD and cannabis become more known and understood, it becomes ever more important to determine what the research is telling us. Determining what is accurate and true and delivering the information clearly and understandably to educate and inform, is of utmost importance.
In this closing section, the attempt to come full circle is backed with credible research, statistics, and facts related to multiple topics regarding CBD & cannabis.
This evolving catalogue of CBD-related medical studies has been separated into various categories based on multiple disorders. As the original table of contents above stated, here is a list of 23 admirbaly associated CBD disorders and findings so far. Findings listed include sources and years of publication.
We have provided links for navigation purposes if we direct you to sources listed elsewhere on our site. The link allows you quick access to the content without having to search for it. We update this page regularly to keep the information as accurate as possible.
We invite you to subscribe to our weekly newsletter on medical cannabis and CBD, as the best way to stay in the know of marijuana-related news and research updates.
The statuses for addiction to marijuana are presumably low in comparison to opioids, alcohol, and tobacco. In addition, it is possible to treat addictions, such as those to opioid pain medicines through medical cannabis avenues.
Statistics relay that states that have approved the use of medical marijuana see much lower usage rates of opioid addiction and opioid prescriptions as well. According to a 2019 publication in Journal of Internal Medicine, legalization of medical marijuana has had a positive impact on opioid usage as follows: any usage OR = .94 – .96, chronic opioid usage OR = .91 – .95, and high-risk opioid usage OR = .94 – .98.
Only about 9% of those who use marijuana face an addition, while 15% of those who use alcohol and 32% of those who use tobacco become addicted to the substances. (Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, 2018)
In a test containing 21 patients, 38% of those patients were able to break away from opioid pain treatment after being treated with cannabis. (Neurology, 2019)
The Canadian Medical Association Journal issued a publication in 2018 that reflected inconsistent test results when comparing marijuana smoking to tobacco-related lung illnesses, including lung cancer, COPD, and other related lung diseases.
A therapeutic dose of CBD is, on average, 750 mg. This level of administration is statistically shown to produce a reduced likelihood of abuse or addiction in areas that are sensitive to drug use. (Epilepsy Behavior, 2018)
As studies continue, it becomes increasingly apparent that marijuana can help relieve addiction and dependence on substances such as alcohol, heroin, and prescription drugs. (Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, 2018)
According to RAND BING Center for Health Economics (2015), a drop in both addiction to opioids and opioid-related deaths has been seen in
the states that have begun to allow medical marijuana usage.
Interestingly, cigarette smokers who begin using CBD smoke nearly 40% less than those who do not (Addictive Behaviors, 2013).
Cannabis addiction is not tied to the release of dopamine into the brain, while other various addictions typically are directly related. It has been noted that extended use or use earlier in life can be related to low dopamine statuses. These statistics conclude that using marijuana in adolescent years can have a more harmful effect. (Biological Psychiatry, 2012)
The Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids (2012) released results of a study, which included 10 women who suffered from extensive dementia. The study showed that for these women, using an oral cannabis extract with THC and CBD dramatically reduced the behaviors that accompany dementia. It also reduced signs of rigidity and improved overall daily care.
In a study produced by Remedy Review (2018), seniors often rated their quality of life at approximately 31%, but after using CBD, nearly 64% of seniors reported a good quality of life. The same publication noted that approximately 61% of seniors attested to pain reduction when using CBD.
Remedy Review (2018) also noted that 45.6% of seniors experienced better sleep quality, 78% reported improved cognitive functions, and 5.6% experienced lower blood pressure. Additionally, almost 29% of those over the age of 54 that tried CBD noted that symptoms were effectively treated.
A relatively small study found that memory performance did not dramatically differ in those who used cannabis regularly compared to those who did not use. In this test, subjects were carefully selected to have similar backgrounds, IQs, ages, and other miscellaneous variables. (Frontiers in Psychology, 2018)
Dronabinol, a cannabinoid, was used in a study to treat dementia-based patients that were experiencing reduced appetites as well as agitation. These patients were given an average dose of about 7.03 mg per day of cannabinoid. They showed major improvements in states of agitation, reduced aggression and resistance, and improved vocalization and communication. The study did not find any difference in appetite. (Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2014)
According to Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research (2019), 45.2% of those who were prescribed benzodiazepines to reduce their anxiety were able to discontinue use of the prescription when taking CBD.
One study found that when pharmacotherapies and psychotherapy treatments were combined with THC or CBD, symptoms of disorders such as addictions, dementia, anxiety, PTSD, anorexia nervosa, schizophrenia, ADHD, and Tourette’s were significantly improved. (European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 2019)
Social anxiety disorder, insomnia, and epilepsy could potentially feel a therapeutic release when taking high doses of oral CBD (up to 600 mg per day). On the same note, these doses could potentially cause mental sedation to the patient. (Cannahealth, 2019)
Nearly 30% of individuals over the age of 54 noted that they experienced a reduction in anxiety when using CBD according to Remedy Review (2018).
Neurotherapeutics (2015) shares results of a study that showed that CBD, when used to treat generalized anxiety disorders, social anxiety disorders, OCD, panic disorders, and PTSD, has positive effects. However, there are still very limited statistics available that utilize CBD routine dosing to treat these disorders.
ASD, also known as autism spectrum disorder, reflected significant noted improvement when using CBD. Nearly 61% of caregivers reflected positive improvement with CBD usage. (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2018)
Leafly (2018) reported that 80% of parents of ASD children saw a significant reduction in behaviors that were not being affected by prescriptions, while 62% reported a significant improvement overall. In the same report, 50% of parents noted improved communications, and 40% showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms when using CBD.
Breastfeeding, Lactating, and Pregnancy
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (2019) reports that using or being exposed to marijuana while pregnant could cause the immune system of the child to be compromised. It was noted that this could further cause infections, immune-based deficiencies, and disorders, as well as cancer.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (2018) recommends avoiding the usage of marijuana when pregnant or breastfeeding. They state that the evidence available does not yet show that it is safe to use marijuana under these circumstances.
Furthermore, the American Academy of Pediatrics (2018) states that legalizing marijuana would provide the assumption that it is safe, which could be inaccurate. There are no controlled trials available for review that have tested pregnant and breastfeeding women with the usage of marijuana. The primary concern is whether there are behavioral or neurological effects related to prenatal marijuana use.
Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics (2018), notes that there is little to no evidence whether using marijuana during lactation affects or negates the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. Some data shows that THC does not transfer through breast milk.
The CDC, also known as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that pregnant women do not use marijuana, as more research needs to be completed to fully understand how marijuana could affect the pregnancy and/or the fetus. The CDC also notes that various properties of marijuana can be transferred through breastfeeding. THC is released much more slowly, but a baby could still be exposed during breastfeeding. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018)
The CDC states that the best method to limit risk for the infant and the breastfeeding mother is to refrain from marijuana usage and exposure during pregnancy and throughout breastfeeding. This recommendation is based on the fact that research is both limited and inconsistent.
The Journal of Rheumatology (2019) notes that more recent studies point to cannabis use not being associated with an increased risk of adverse factors; when there are no other substances involved.
It is possible that cannabis could affect neurodevelopment. However, there is very little data tested on humans that portrays whether there is a significant difference in children exposed to cannabis during pregnancy compared to those not exposed (Current Drug Research Reviews, 2019).
A survey completed in 2018 reported that marijuana usage in women who were pregnant between the ages of 18 – 25 years was approximately 8.5%. From 2002 to 2016, marijuana usage among pregnant women nearly doubled from 2.85 to 4.98%. (JAMA Pediatrics, 2018)
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2018) reported a study which showed that there was little difference in birth weights or gestational periods between mothers who did or did not smoke marijuana while pregnant. However, it was noted that mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy were more likely to smoke cigarettes, suffer from postpartum depression, and quit breastfeeding early.
Upon review, it has been noted that THC can breach the placenta, exposing the baby to cannabis. This exposure could cause both psychological and cognitive symptoms. (American Journal Obstetric Gynecology, 2015)
According to some studies, recent information does report that using marijuana throughout pregnancy could lead to stillbirth, preterm birth, and fetal growth issues. (Obstetric Gynecology, 2018)
The Annals of Internal Medicine (2017) noted that marijuana is commonly consumed by mothers in the first trimester as a means to reduce nausea symptoms.
In 2014, a study involving 4,735 pregnant women in the state of Hawaii noted that 3.7% reported the use of marijuana to relieve nausea, while 2.3% did not. (Hawaii J Med Public Health, 2014)
Clinical trials using cannabinoids or CBD are limited in regards to cancer treatments. These trials are ongoing and incomplete. It is hopeful that at some point, cannabinoids could be used to treat oncology patients. At this time, additional research is still required. (Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2019)
According to Cell Adhesion & Migration (2017), there is potential for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids in glioblastoma.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (2006) reported on a 2006 study that used CBD oil for breast cancer cells. However, the research noted that continued testing and investigation is required to understand whether CBD could limit tumor growth and what side effects could be associated.
Cannabinoid compounds work in various ways, often affecting the brain. The question is whether these compounds could improve PTSD symptoms. At this time, additional trials and research are needed to understand the effects. Additionally, adults with ADHD found improvements with hyperactivity but have not seen an improvement in cognitive effects. (Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 2019)
Psychopharmacology (2019) reported that CBD, when paired with THC in both equal and THC-dominant amounts, did impair driving capabilities when used. It was also noted that one clinical trial provided data that THC impairment was actually worsened when CBD was added.
The Journal of Affective Disorders (2019) reported that recent studies showed that there was no correlation in symptom reduction or improvement with cannabis usage for depression or severe anxiety. However, it was also noted that compounds containing low levels of THC and high levels of CBD (<5.5 and <9.5%, respectively) were most likely to achieve improvements in depression.
Animal studies recently found information supporting antidepressant properties that were fast-acting and retainable. To further understand whether CBD could be an antidepressant, further human trials are needed. (Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 2019)
In Epilepsy & Behavior (2019), it was noted that CBD could have positive effects on epilepsy patients who are resistant to treatment. Quality of life could be improved by CBD when it was not dependent on controlling or improving seizures.
Various clinical trials reviewed portrayed that CBD could efficiently treat epilepsy when used in coordination with epileptic prescription drugs. Understanding how the drugs could work or affect one another required additional research (Molecules, 2019)
There have been two substantial trials that reported improvement of seizures in children who used CBD in comparison to those who did not. There is an ongoing trial for adult treatment of seizures with CBD, but data is currently limited. (Recent Advances in Cannabinoid Research [book], 2019)
The New England Journal of Medicine (2017) reported that children between the ages of 2 and 18 who suffered from Dravet, a high-mortality form of epilepsy that involves convulsive seizures and is resistant to treatment, experienced a significant reduction of seizures (22.8%) when they used CBD. When 20mg of CBD was used, seizures reduced by 42%. When 10mg were used, seizures reduced by 37%.
Another study showed that intractable epilepsy, treated by CBD, showed significant seizure reduction. Out of 74 children, 66 experienced fewer seizures with reduced frequency, and 13 noted a reduction of seizures by 75% or more, some up to 100%. Only about 19 children noted a reduction of 25% or less. (Seizure – European Journal of Epilepsy, 2016)
According to Scientific American (2016), approximately 2% of patients with epilepsy that use CBD stated that seizures fully stopped.
Additionally, The Lancet (2015) reported that individuals between the ages of 1 and 30 who suffer from severe epilepsy who use CBD experienced a 36.5% average reduction in overall seizures.
Parents whose children use CBD for epilepsy treatment reported various results from CBD treatment, including 11% ceasing of seizures, 42% experiencing 80% fewer seizures, and 32% experienced anywhere from 25 – 60% fewer seizures. (Epilepsy Behavior, 2019)
It has been found that those who experience symptoms of glaucoma, such as eye inflammation, can have positive results from THC. However, it is also noted that for treatment to be effective, it would require multiple doses throughout the day, which would also have a negative effect on daily tasks. (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2019)
Inflammable Bowel and Crohn’s Disease
Patients between the ages of 13-23 who suffer from inflammatory bowel disease, also referred to as IBD, report nearly 53% usage of marijuana to combat pain or provide relief of symptoms. Primarily, users found marijuana to reduce and improve their symptoms effectively. (Journal of Pediatrics, 2018)
According to Digestive Diseases and Sciences (2019), cannabis could improve and reduce various complications related to Crohn’s disease.
Cannabinoids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory characteristics that lead to pain reduction and improved gut health. Clinical trials are still being conducted, but thus far have shown that CBD is a viable treatment option for IBD, IBS, nausea, vomiting, Crohn’s, and other various GI disorders. As of yet, there has been no comparison to the results of standard treatments for these ailments. (Current Gastroenterology Reports, 2019)
Legalization of Marijuana
According to the Pew Research Center (2018), studies show that about 62% of Americans believe that marijuana should become legal. This is an increase from the 2016 study that reflected about 57% support and a 2006 study that offered about 32% support.
Studies have noted that those who begin using marijuana at a young age are more likely to experience addiction and high usage rates of marijuana. These individuals are also more likely to drive or work after using marijuana. This leads to statements that it may be beneficial to enforce age restrictions as well as further prevention methods to delay marijuana usage. (Addictive Behaviors, 2019)
The Social Science Quarterly (2019) discussed a study that was directed at women, who tend to be more conservative when it comes to the issue of legalizing marijuana. The study reported that women tend to have higher religious views than men, which directly correlated with the support of legalizing marijuana.
Studies show that in states that have moved to legalize marijuana, there has been an increase in pediatric use and exposure to marijuana that is directly related to the legalization of marijuana. Many of these states have taken action to improve these statistics, including childproof packaging, among other measures. (Clinical Pediatrics, 2019)
The American Journal of Bioethics (2019) states that the legalization of marijuana should be more openly discussed rather than criminalized. There is a need for insurance companies to discuss and determine coverage of cannabis and related products when used for medical purposes. Insurance companies can control coverage, using research as grounds for what is allowable.
According to Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2018), states that have legalized marijuana experience a 21% higher rate of the individualized use of marijuana.
According to the Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law (2018), people will not discontinue using drugs or drug substances based on criminalization, which is apparent in history. We have the ability to control the market, rather than continuing to allow it to control itself. Additionally, the Congressional Research Service estimates that if a tax system were put into place, there’s the potential for more than 6 billion dollars of excise taxes.
Republicans began initiating support for marijuana legalization for the first time in 2017, with 51% support. There continues to be a significant increase in American support for marijuana legalization; with 64% of the population approving legalization. This is the highest support found through this poll’s measurements. (Gallup Poll: Social Series, 2017)
When Colorado approved the legalization of cannabis for recreational use, they experienced reduced death rates that were directly related to opioid use. It would appear that legalizing cannabis in Colorado improved opioid usage statistics and reduced associated death rates. (American Journal of Public Health, 2017)
Migraines and Headaches
According to Care by Design (2015), 100% of migraine and headache patients saw a decrease in their headaches and the pain that accompanied them when using CBD.
In 2018, a survey found that chronic pain was the top reason that cannabis was used. This survey was completed specifically about cannabis treatment for headaches and migraines. In the survey, it was noted that the preferred treatment was with hybrid strains. (The Journal of Headache and Pain, 2018)
Patients who suffer from refractory multiple sclerosis noticed a significant reduction in their spasticity rates when they underwent 12 weeks of treatment with nabiximols. Nabiximols is an oral spray that contains a compound of both THC and CBD in cannabis extract. (Eur J Neurology, 2011)
In the U.S., approximately 81% of adults believe there are benefits to marijuana, while 17% believe there are not. Most commonly, pain management was the attested benefit, followed by the treatment of epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Treating anxiety, stress, and depression also held high statistics in believed benefits. (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2018)
Neurology (2019) reported that in concussion patients, oral compounds of cannabis that were a 20:1 ratio of THC: CBD were preferred.
The Open Science Journal of Psychology (2019) shared recent cases for men who suffered from spinal injuries due to vehicle accidents. The men used CBD for pain relief rather than opioids, and it was determined that CBD provided better and more consistent pain management results.
In another study, women who suffered from endometriosis tend to self-treat with cannabis, heat, CBD or hemp oils, and diet improvements. The study showed that the women who used these methods experienced more effective pain management and relief. (BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2019)
According to the Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health (2014), responses indicated a 64% reduction in treating pain. This is based on the 97% of responses that noted average pain reduction of about 5 on a scale of 1-10. In the same survey, 50% noted stress and anxiety relief, and 45% noted improved sleeping habits.
Studies that focus on rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis report that using cannabis or CBD treatment options significantly reduce inflammation symptoms. (Arthritis Research and Therapy, 2008)
While trials are still necessary to determine whether cannabis can positively reduce cancer signs, some studies show significant pain relief through CBD and THC based analgesic compounds. In these studies, the numbers show that twice as many patients using THC: CBD analgesics experienced a significant reduction in pain. (Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 2010)
According to the British Medical Journal (2001), various cannabinoids have been shown to effectively reduce vomiting and nausea side effects of patients going through chemo treatments. More than 38% of patients undergoing chemo treatments note that medical marijuana works better than typical anti-nausea medications prescribed.
According to the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience (2019), some studies are not at the clinical trial stage level and yet still portray positive results in Parkinson’s patients when CBD treatments are used. Additionally, it appears that improvements were seen in non-motor related symptoms. At this time, clinical studies still need to be completed to fully understand whether CBD is safe and effective.
PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
24 states thus far have legalized medical marijuana specifically for use in treating PTSD symptoms. Amongst these states are: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia. (ECHO Connection, 2017)
According to the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2019), patients with PTSD who were currently in psychiatric care had significantly reduced symptoms with the use of CBD. With 8 weeks of routine treatment in the study, symptoms were reduced by 28%. In this study, CBD was used in correlation with psychiatric care needs.
The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (2019) performed the first trial that used smoking marijuana for PTSD symptom treatment. At this time, the results are pending publication.
BMC Psychiatry (2019) is currently performing a trial to determine whether CBD treatment can help improve symptoms that are related to phobias such as agoraphobia, panic disorder, and social phobia.
Surveys show that individuals who suffer from PTSD see a 75% reduction in symptoms related to PTSD when they use cannabis to treat symptoms (Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 2014)
In another study, the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (2015) concludes that 4 separate studies provide information that concludes that PTSD treatment by cannabinoids was improved. Specific symptoms tested were nightmares and insomnia, which were reduced.
Nabilone, which is a cannabinoid, was tested in individuals with PTSD and showed improved sleep with fewer nightmares when measured using the recurrent distressing dream tool from CAPS. (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2015)
The Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research (2006), reports very little difference in the results of CBD and normal antipsychotic treatments. That study involved treating schizophrenic patients for 2-4 weeks with a CBD treatment routine. However, it was noted that CBD treatments reduced the overall side effects that accompanied treatments.
Evidence of treatment options using CBD for psychiatric disorders is hard to find at this time. There is little evidence that supports the use of CBD products to treat various disorders. Further research and trials are needed to fully understand the results and possibilities in this area of study. (The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2017)
It has been reported that topical CBD ointments, void of THC properties, can improve and relieve skin conditions, specifically when they cause inflammation. (La Clinica Terapeutica, 2019)
A survey consisting of 571 patients was performed. The results showed that 67% of patients used cannabis to treat insomnia, 16% treated pain-related sleep issues, 11% treated anxiety that resulted in the loss of sleep, and 6% treated miscellaneous pain and anxiety symptoms. Additionally, it was determined that THC improves sleep through cannabis usage and that higher THC levels resulted in reduced grogginess the following day. (Sleep, 2019)
In a study of 72 adults who suffered from poor sleep and anxiety, nearly 80% were able to reduce their anxiety in as little as 30 days by taking CBD pills. About 67% of scores reported improved sleep initially with fluctuating sleep over time. (The Permanente Journal, 2019)
According to Neurology (2019), medical cannabis treatments resulted in 80% improved sleep, 77% improved headaches, and 77% improved moods, specifically in patients who had experienced traumatic concussions.
The CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics 2009, shared a clinical trial that reflected THC dosages given at night significantly reduced nightmares in 72% of the patients in the trial.
Another study shows that using cannabis at a young age could cause poor sleep, as there are certain aspects of cannabis that conflict with adolescent sleep. This study was related to 18-year old individuals. (Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2019)
According to the Journal of Affective Disorders (2018), high CBD and low THC doses provided the biggest change to depression, while high CBD and high THC doses offered the biggest change to stress.
One study showed that a THC + CBD strain was less likely to cause cravings, intoxication, and cytokine circulation. (Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2018)
A 2-year study that was conduction included 27-symptom categories and an 11-point scale. On average, symptoms were improved by 3.5 on the scale. In the trial, dried flower provided higher relief properties than other cannabis products provided. Symptoms were most relieved when THC levels were noticeably higher. However, potential side effects increased with higher THC rates. (Scientific Reports, 2019)
In a recent study published by Behavior Research and Therapy (2019), it was noted that various potency levels need to be studied and administered in trials to understand the outcomes completely. Additionally, it is important to study how the cannabis is administered and how that may affect symptoms as well.
Another study indicated that CBD products are not accurately labeled 70% of the time. While there is little concern for labeling CBD content, there is a concern for properly labeling THC properties, based on how that can significantly affect individuals, especially children. (JAMA, 2017)
According to Remedy Review (2018), 30% of individuals over the age of 54 who use CBD report significantly reduced stress levels.
The Journal of Affective Disorders (2018) reported that compounds that include both high CBD and high THC properties were the most likely to reduce stress.
Weight & Metabolism
Studies show that frequent cannabis use produced significant metabolic differences in men, but did not significantly affect women. Additionally, it was noted that the routine use of cannabis lowers obesity, hypertension, and triglycerides in men, but not women. (Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2019)
In addition to these twenty three topics, here is a table listing all of the latest CBD-centric clinical data and feedback:
Buying the Best CBD Oil Conclusion
We have shared the above 30 CBD oil products in the order that we would recommend the products. However, it is important to keep in mind that each person is different. The dosage you need, especially if you have not yet experimented with CBD products could vastly vary as well as the flavors or qualities you are looking for.
We put together this ranking and reviews in an effort to share with you the best products on the market and to provide you with the pertinent information to make a selection for yourself based on the information herein.
CBD oil when unflavored typically has a strong earthy tang to it. It is not an unbearable flavor, but if you feel as though that may not be suitable for you, we urge you to select a CBD that has a flavor option. The flavors mask some of the natural hemp taste and can make it the taste more enjoyable.
We have shared here only companies that we feel offer high-quality products and companies that are transparent with their products so that we can readily find information and know what the product contains or does not contain.
Most CBD oils are quite similar in nature, but they may contain different levels of different additional ingredients or vitamins. Some have coconut oil bases or even contain nut-based products, so pay close attention to the ingredients and labels, particularly if you have any kind of allergy or sensitivity to foods.
To recap a quick summary of what was covered as the top-rated CBD oil products were ranked and reviewed, here is an illuminating infographic on the CBD industry and innovation:
We’ve made an effort to piece together information so that you can compare products and determine for yourself which one is most likely to be right for you. Remember to check out varying dosages for your needs. We hope that you have found this to be both helpful and informative. Happy CBD shopping for you!
About the Authors:
The TimesofCBD team put together an incredible resource and CBD oil guide to give the highest-quality, most valuable information available all under one roof. The ranking of the 30 best cbd oils was helped using a number of factors from a number of figures. The insights, expertise and professional-level research conducted above required a high-degree of collaboration and input. Here is a list of everyone who had a helping hand in compiling this best cannabis oil research guide.
Researched by: Registered Dietitian, Nutrition by Natalie
Written by: Best Selling author, Peter Tzemis
Edited by: Canadian Naturopathic Doctor, Dr. Anthony Yores
Consulted with: Medical Cannabis writer, Mary Biles
Published by: Andrew